How Secure 2.0 Will Impact Employers’ Tax Situations

Defining an Impaired Asset

Understanding the Weighted Average Cost (WAC) Method for Inventory Valuation

tranche contributes to the overall valuation of its cost of goods sold (COGS) and inventory. Recognized by both GAAP and IFRS, it’s determined by taking the cost of goods available for sale and dividing it by the quantity of inventory ready to be sold. It’s important to note that while WAC is a generally accepted accounting principle, it’s not as precise as FIFO or LIFO; however, it is effective at assigning average cost of production to a given product.

It’s done primarily for types of inventories where parts are so intertwined that it makes it problematic to attribute clear-cut expenditures to a particular part. This often happens when stockpiles of parts are indistinguishable from each other. It also accounts for businesses offering their inventory for sale all at once. Here’s a visual representation of the formula: 

Weighted Average Cost (WAC) Method Formula

WAC per unit = Cost of goods available for sale / Units available for sale

Costs of goods available for sale is determined by adding new purchases of inventory to the value of what the business already had in its existing stock. Units available for sale is how many saleable items the company possesses. Its value is assessed per item and encompasses starting inventory and additional purchases.

When it comes to calculating WAC, there are two different types of inventory analysis systems: periodic and perpetual.

Periodic Inventory System

In this system, the business tallies its inventory at the end of the accounting period – be it a quarter, half or fiscal year – and analyzes how much the inventory costs. This then determines the value of the remaining inventory. The COGS is then calculated by adding how much starting, final, and additional inventory within the accounting period cost.

Perpetual Inventory System

This system puts a bigger emphasis on more real-time management of its stock levels. The trade-off for such real-time tracking of inventory requires more company financial resources. Looking at an example of how a company began its fiscal year with the following inventory can illustrate how it works.

At the beginning of the year, a company had 1,000 units, costing $50 per unit. It also made three additional inventory purchases going forward.

Jan 20: 75 units costing $100 = $7,500

Feb 17: 150 units costing $150 = $22,500

March 18: 300 units costing $200 = $60,000

During the fiscal year, the business sold:

235 units sold during the last week of February

325 units sold during the last week of March

Looking at the Periodic Inventory System, for the first three months of its fiscal year, the company can determine its COGS and the number of items ready to be sold over the first three months of its fiscal year.

WAC per item – ($50,000 + $7,500 + $22,500 + $60,000) / 1,525 = $91.80

Based on this method, the WAC per unit would be multiplied by the number of units sold during the accounting period, therefore:

560 units x $91.80 = $51,408 (inventory sold)

To calculate the final inventory value, we take the entire purchase cost and subtract the remaining inventory to arrive at the valuation:

$140,000 – $51,408 = $88,592

Perpetual Inventory System

Unlike the periodic inventory system, this looks at determining the mean prior to the transaction of items:

This would calculate the average before the 235 units were sold during the last week of February:

WAC for each item: ($50,000 + $7,500 + $22,500) / 1,225 = $65.31

Looking at the 235 units sold during the last week of February, it’s calculated as follows:

235 x $65.31 = $15,347.85 (inventory sold)

$80,000 – $15,347.85 = $64,652.15 (remaining inventory value)

Before calculating for the 325 units sold the last week of March, the unit valuation per WAC is: ($64,652.15 + $60,000) / (1225 – 235 + 300) = 1290 = $96.63

Looking at the 325 units sold during the last week of March is calculated as follows:

325 x $96.63 = $31,404.75 (inventory sold)

$124,652.15 – $31,404.75 = $93,247.40 (remaining inventory)

Based on these options, businesses have the choice, along with LIFO and FIFO, to decide how they want to vary it based on their own business needs.

Defining and Calculating Amortization

noticeable differences for each method, including how to salvage value is considered, whether accelerated expensing is allowed, and how each type is expressed on financial statements.


Amortization is an accounting practice of spreading the cost of an intangible asset over its useful life. Examples of intangible assets, according to the Internal Revenue Service’s “Section 197 Intangibles,” include goodwill, intellectual property such as trademarks, patents, and government or agency-granted permits or licenses. These are all assets that must be amortized over 15 years.

Based on IRS regulations, when it comes to determining how an asset is expensed over its useful life, amortization is most similar to the straight-line basis method of depreciation. 

It’s important to note that the timeframe of amortization is subject to interpretation. Examples, according to the IRS, include a 36-month amortization timeline for computer software because it’s not categorized as an asset under the same IRS Section. Other examples not mandated to be amortized under a 15-year time frame include interests to land, business partnerships, financial contracts (such as interest rate swaps) or creation of media. 


One of the main differences when it comes to depreciation is that it focuses on tangible or fixed assets and requires a certain percentage of its useful life to be allocated each year. Examples of assets that can be expensed include trucks for service calls, computers, printers, equipment for production, etc. Another important difference is that the asset’s salvage value is deducted from the asset’s starting cost. The remaining balance (original cost – salvage cost) determines annual expensing amounts, which is divided by the asset’s years of useful life.

Along with the above method of depreciation, also called “Straight-Line Method,” there are other ways depreciation can determine how much is expensed annually and over the asset’s useful life. For example, Declining Balance or Double Declining Balance methods are alternate ways businesses can depreciate their assets – some frontload the amounts to take advantage of accounting/tax rules to reduce their tax liabilities. Another way is to depreciate via Units of Production. This method pro-rates the level of an asset’s expected use within a particular accounting period, on a per-unit basis, to determine how much the company can expense during a particular accounting timeframe.

When it comes to accounting for goodwill, according to a November 2020 electronic survey of CFA charter holders by the CFA Institute, respondents found that investors who see amortization used by companies still require investors’ due diligence. Sixty-one percent of respondents said there need to be alternate ways to figure out if management is effective or not, and 63 percent said that amortization “distorts financial metrics.”

When it comes to understanding and navigating the differences between amortization and depreciation, business owners and investors need to be well-versed in performing due diligence to ensure compliance.


Auditing: What it is & Why It’s Done

Financial Accounting Overview

Statement of Cash Flow

Per the SEC, a statement of cash flow features three sections that detail sources and utilization of the business’ operating, financing and investing cash flows. It paints a picture of inflows and outflows of the business’s cash levels. At the end of the day, it helps anyone interested in the company’s financials, especially potential and current investors, see the latest status and trends of cash flow.

One way to calculate cash flow, according to the SEC, is to look at a company’s free cash flow (FCF). This is calculated as follows:

Free Cash Flow = Operating Cash Flow – Capital Expenditures

Free Cash Flow = $50 million – $20 million = $30 million

This information is helpful because free cash flow can help determine a company’s financial health, how well (or not) the business model is performing, and its overall likelihood of success moving forward. Additionally, understanding the difference in accounting methods is another helpful piece of financial accounting analysis.

Accrual Method vs. Cash Method

Accrual Method

When it comes to the accrual method, according to the Congressional Research Service, when a business is paid for services or products to be rendered in the future, the payment is permitted to be recognized as revenue only when the product or service has been rendered. When it comes to accounting for expenses that are presumably deductible, under the accrual method, the expense can be recorded when it’s experienced by the business, not when payment has been made to the utility, raw material supplier, etc.

Cash Method

If a consultant gets payment immediately but isn’t expected to do said job until the following month, this approach requires revenue to be recognized when the cash has been received. Similarly, when expenses are paid is when expenses are recorded.


For any businesses that handles inventory or sells to customers on credit, accrual accounting is required by the Internal Revenue Service. Similarly, for companies with average gross receipt of revenues greater than $25 million for the past 36 months, the IRS mandates accrual accounting. For companies with average gross receipt of revenues of less than $25 million, depending on the exact circumstances of the company’s business nature, cash or accrual may be used.

Financial accounting provides investors, business owners and those providing businesses with legal and accountability a way to monitor performance and compliance.


How Cost Accounting Helps Businesses Measure Performance

How Businesses Can Mitigate Inflation & Maintain Pricing Power

Measuring the Margins

How to Calculate the Cash Conversion Cycle

The Cash Conversion Cycle, also known as the Net Operating Cycle, answers the question, “How many days does it take a company to pay for and generate cash from the sales of its inventory?” However, before an analysis like this can take place, it’s important to consider the company’s primary line of business.

If the company sells software, it’s more challenging to measure performance if it generates revenue primarily on intellectual property – by developing computer code and licensing its use to clients. For online marketplaces, especially those that make the majority of their profits from third-party sellers that manage product sourcing, listing their inventory and shipping products on their own won’t measure the online marketplace’s own inventory. Since these types of businesses don’t act like a manufacturer that produces and sells products to other businesses or the general public, this type of analysis will be less helpful.

To start with the formula for the Cash Conversion Cycle (CCC), it’s calculated as follows:

CCC = Days of Sales Outstanding (DSO) + Days of Inventory Outstanding (DIO) – Days of Payables Outstanding (DPO)

Days of Sales Outstanding, Defined

DSO is the average number of days it takes a company to collect payment once a sale has completed. The beginning and ending Accounts Receivable figures from a fiscal year are added together and divided by 2. Then revenue from the income statement for the entire fiscal year must be divided by 365 days to get a daily average.

DSO = Beginning Accounts Receivable + Ending Accounts Receivable / 2 = Revenue / 365 days

The fewer the days, the better; however, it can’t be so fast that such tight payment terms push customers away.

Days of Inventory Outstanding, Defined

DIO is the average number of days a business keeps its inventory before it’s purchased.

The beginning and ending inventories of a fiscal year are added together and divided by 2 to find an average. The resulting figure is then divided by the daily average of the cost of goods sold over a fiscal year, which is often 365 days.

DIO = Beginning Inventory + Ending Inventory / 2 = Cost of Goods Sold / 365 days

The lower the number, the faster inventory is sold. While there’s nothing wrong with moving it fast, there is the danger that orders might not be able to be fulfilled.

Defining the Operating Cycle

As the CFA Institute explains, putting DIO and DSO together constitutes the Operating Cycle. This is defined as the period of days that it takes a business to transform basic materials and/or goods into stock and obtain money from the completed transaction. When this number is small, it means product is moving and customers have no issue making prompt payments.

Days of Payable Outstanding, Defined

Days of Payable Outstanding determines the number of days a business takes to fulfill its debts to suppliers.

DPO = Beginning Accounts Payable + Ending Accounts Payable / 2 = Cost of Goods Sold / 365 days

Considerations for DPO include finding a balance between how long a business can take to pay their suppliers, but also not missing out on pre-payment discounts or being penalized with late fees, financing charges, etc.

Going Beyond the Results

When analyzing the Cash Conversion Cycle for the right type of company, it can provide great insight into a company’s efficiency in collecting billings; how long inventory is up for sale; and the time it takes to become current with its own suppliers. Depending on the results of the CCC analysis, performing financial analyses can provide insight into not only how the company is performing financially, but why the company is performing financially.